A Summary about cloning
The short informatic text "How cloning works" from June 2018 is written by Cornelia Kaminski and deals with the history of cloning, the future potential and explains it.
Cloning plants is used for hundreds of years but not until July 1996 cloning animals wasn't possible. After the 277th attempt, the scientists succeeded with cloning and named the Scottish sheep Dolly, which died due to arthritis, cancer and premature ageing in the earlies of 2002.
In the process of cloning, first, an unfertilized egg is needed and existing DNA material is removed to transfer DNA from the to be cloned suspect. Next, the cell dividing process is started by stimulating with electricity. Then the resulting embryo is transplanted into a surrogate mother which later gives birth to the clone.
Today American cloning companies replicate very productive animals.
One of the big flaws of cloning is the faster ageing process of clones, that higher mortality rate and the accompanying abnormalities.
From then on the scientists continued cloning animals and 2018 Chinese scientists accomplished cloning 2 primates out of 3 hundred which are relatives to us, humans. Therefore the ethical question of cloning humans has risen. the creator of Dolly, Jan Wilmet, answers it in 2001 by saying that not until the issues of nuclear cloning are resolved, it would be dangerous and irresponsible because it would lead to abnormal children and adults which are troubling outcomes. But later in 2004, he applied for a licence for human cloning probably to research more for the great benefits of cloning where the shortage of organs for transplantation could be resolved by growing organs from stem cells.
Until this future, scientists need to overcome the high risk of the transferred cells to become tumours due to their fas cell grow / multiply.
Overall it's a complex topic which needs more research and ethical arguments rounds that comes to a conclusion for our society.